Latyshev A. V. Tourism in Russia of the 1990s: Professional Expert Discourse (.pdf)
In the article, on the basis of archival documents and materials of the professional press, the author observes the views of the tourist professional community on the phenomenon of tourism spread in Russia of the 1990s. It was the period when the old ideas fell, and new ones grew, which should have been particularly reflected in the tourism industry, as it had been under the high ideology pressure in the Soviet times. The article deals with the ideas typical for the majority of industry representatives in the 1990s: perception of the country's tourist potential as high and unique, unconditional interest of foreigners to Russia, the important impact of tourism on social progress, the solid educational and developing influence of travel on tourists, etc. It also demonstrates the rudiments of fear and mistrust to everything from abroad. The article traces how those connected with the travel industry understood the meaning of their work, and what they suggested for developing tourism in Russia. The author identifies special groups among the professional community, each of them advocating the priority development of one of the three types of travel-related leisure activities, united in one term “tourism”. The representatives of the “commercial” version wanted to earn foreign currency for the state by attracting guests from abroad. The supporters of sport tourism positioned themselves as an alternative to "commerce" and spoke about physical development of the nation. Those who offered the development of social tourism planned to make travel accessible for all Russian citizens. The author concludes that the set of views in the professional society of the 1990s, with all its hopes and fears, was largely set by the ideological legacy of the Soviet era.
Key words: tourism, professional communities, the 1990s, social moods, cultural transit, social history.