The author examines the history of the Communist Academy and distinguishes three stages in its development. The first stage (1918–1919) is connected with the activity of the Socialist Academy of Social Sciences. Its members implemented training and scientific functions. The second stage (1919–1924) is associated with the activity of the Socialist Academy. Its members implemented only scientific functions. Finally, the third stage (1924–1936) was connected with the activity of the Communist Academy. Its structure and functions often changed. The author examines the normative direction of the evolution of the Communist Academy and its real activities. The author claims that the Communist Academy was the «paper tiger»: its quantitative indicators increased (departments, employees, scientific works, etc.), but its quality indicators did not (many departments and its employees did not work, scientific works were of low quality). The causes of the situation were external (the political situation) and internal (the peculiarity of the Academy’s scientific works). Among other internal causes, there were poor funding, low-skilled employees, the work of the staff in other centers, orientation to comply with the policy of the party, etc. As a result, in 1936, the Academy was closed and became a part of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Key words: Soviet historiography, Marxism, Socialist Academy of Social Sciences, Socialist Academy, Communist Academy.