Gazieva L. L. Problems and contradictions in organizing re-evacuation of the Leningrad children in 1944–1945 (.pdf)


The article covers the antinomies and problems of re-evacuating children to Leningrad within childhood houses and individually in 1944-1945. The author presents the comparative analysis of data from official correspondence which describe living and financial difficulties because of war destruction, the efforts to overcome it, and a successful return of evacuated children in Leningrad. Loss of housing in Leningrad as a result of hostile attacks were more than 20%, or about 3 million square meters. Bombardments destroyed 22 and damaged 393 school buildings, destroyed or damaged 195 children buildings (nurseries and orphanages). During re-evacuation, there was a serious problem of quarantine as there were various epidemics. For example, 50% of children of the orphanage № 73 had been infected with malaria; the epidemic of malaria was also registered in the Krasnoyarsk region where it infected 46 children from 36 orphanages. 4070 pupils have returned to Leningrad during the period from January, 1, 1944 until the end of 1944. But the official re-evacuation of children began only after May, 29, 1945. More than 45 310 children and adults (the personnel of orphanages) had to leave 26 regions from May to August of 1945. Teachers were worried about orphans. For example, in their letters, the nurses from the orphanage of the footwear factory “The Proletarian Victory” asked to return the children whose parents had died working in the besieged Leningrad. The correspondence shows social, economic, and psychological circumstances of re-evacuation, because many orphanages have gradually become small communes, providing with all the necessary by themselves, that affected their living conditions.


Key words: Leningrad, siege, children, children’s houses, re-evacuation.


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