Arkhangelskaya L. V. Women's secondary schools during the First world war (the Рerm province example) (.pdf)


The article analyzes the situation in the Perm province women's secondary schools during the First World War. The author shows the war impact on schools in the provinces located far from the theater of war. The war and reform of secondary education, that began in those years, contributed to the strengthening of patriotic feelings, the development of moral and religious education. As part of patriotic direction, physical education of pupils received more attention in girls' schools. Teachers and pupils of women's secondary schools made energetic efforts to contribute to the front. Pupils did not want to stay away from current events, therefore they went to help in hospitals, worked as kindergarten teachers and thus take care of the children of the peasants, who were at the front. Senior girls were invited to organize charity fundraising for different funds. Charity events, such as paid literary and musical evenings, performances, dances, concerts, and charity fundraisings, were held in all female secondary schools of the province. Pupils made knitted clothes during sewing classes at schools and at home to send to the front, produced gas masks and respirators. The administration of women’s schools sought to keep the usual study process, but all province female secondary schools were to be allocated for military billets and hospitals. Due to those circumstances, sanitary conditions became worse, classes were to be held in two shifts, and hours on some courses also were reduced. During the First World War, girls' schools tried not to increase the cost of education and to provide scholarships for poor pupils. The author concludes that, despite the difficult war time, women’s schools continued to develop quite well.


Key words: Perm province, women's secondary schools, the First World War, charity, patriotism.


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