Kaipova E. G. Reflection of burgher religiousness in the doctrines of Cathar and Waldensian heretical movements in France and Germany of XII – early XIV centuries (on the base of Catholic sources) (.pdf)
The article provides an analysis of the doctrines of Cathar and Waldensian heretical movements, widespread in France and Germany in XII –early XIV centuries, in order to show how it reflected special features of burgher religiousness, which caused burghers’ disapproval of the Catholic Church and their involvement into heretical movements. The list of historical sources includes the works of Italian, French and Germancatholic priesthood of XII –early XIV centuries. The author states that social status and occupations of burghers influenced their mentality and religious life. The processes of rationalization and individualization led to the evolution of internal faith and formeda new type of personal religious life. Dissatisfaction with the Catholic Church caused by secularism began to growamong burghers. The development of personal religious life led them to the study of the Holy Scriptures in vulgar tongue and to the life in accordance with evangelical ideals. Those processes contributed tothe rise of Cathar and Waldensian heretical movements. According to catholic sources, both Cathars and Waldenses condemned the Catholic Church for neglecting evangelical ideals of life and considered themselves as the only righteous Christians. They also denied the authority of catholic clergy in the issues of faith and tried to challenge the monopoly of clergy on reading and interpretation of the Holy Scripture. They refused to follow the teachings and sacraments of the Church that were not mentioned in the Scriptures. The doctrines of heretics reflectedthe features of burgher religiousness, because the involvement into heresies gave burghers a possibility to provide their own way of religious life.
Key words: heresy, Cathars, Waldenses, burghers, burgher religiousness.