Kazakova-Apkarimova E. Yu. Professional associations and unions in Ural cities during the revolution of 1905-1907 (.pdf)
The history of professional associations and unions in Ural cities during the first Russian revolution is analyzed on the basis of archival and published sources (law, record keeping documents, periodicals) along with using the achievements of historiography. The author analyzes the legal framework and the conditions for the occurrence of such associations, particularly in the context of professionalization and politicization of citizens’ public life. Using an institutional approach to social (and political) life, the author refers to the least studied issue of how high the level of self-organization of various professional groups (clerks, retail clerks, teachers, health workers, mining technicians, workers, etc.) was in Ural cities during the first Russian revolution. The author concludes that in 1905-1907, professional non-governmental organizations rose from mutual aid societies to trade unions and began to play a significant role in public life of the Ural cities. They defended civil rights and economic interests of their members, promoted the formation of civic consciousness of citizens and increased their professional and political culture.
Key words: professionalization, politicization, professional societies and associations, city, the Urals, the first Russian revolution, civil rights.