The paper presents the analysis of the current U.S. foreign policy toward Afghanistan within the context of the NATO withdrawn from the country, as well as the development of the new sustainable U.S.-Afghan relations. The research goal is to discover the system dimensions and the key factors of the U.S. policy during last years. The research methodology is system and political economy analysis of international relations within neoclassical theory. The main focus of the research is made on the changes in the Afghan domestic policy including fragmentation and marginalization of Taliban and other radical Islamic movements as the further decay of the Pushtun tribal structure, the evolution of inter-ethnic compromise and the results of the “reconstruction of the state” in the context of the NATO’s military campaign and the U.S. political goals in Afghanistan and around in 2001–2014. At the same time, the author investigates the key points of the U.S. political strategy in Afghanistan after 2014 in relation to the transforming regional system of the balance of power. Besides that, the research examines the current role of Afghanistan as the regional transport crossroads in its relationship with the American policy toward Afghanistan and international policy in the South Asia and the Middle East in general.
Key words: contemporary political processes in Afghanistan, U.S. foreign policy, balance of power in Central and South Asia, regional security.