Kitsenko O.S., Kitsenko R.N. The formation of Zemstvo sanitary organization in the half of XIX – early XX century (on the materials of Saratov province) (.pdf)
The features of the formation of Zemstvo sanitary organization are analyzed in the paper. The author analyses Zemstvo records and periodical materials and identifies the main stages of the development of sanitary organization in Saratov province. The factors which led to low financing of sanitation in the early post-reform years and to further revision of the priorities of health care are investigated, and the basic forms of sanitation work during the epidemics of the 1890s are analyzed. In most provinces, the establishment of Zemstvo sanitary organizations took place in the 1890 and 1900s. The Saratov Zemstvo was among the first five ones where provincial sanitary organizations appeared earlier, in the 1880s. Thus, in a region where lean years were frequent, and a threat of epidemics from the southern regions was common, the importance of Zemstvo sanitation work was recognized earlier than in other provinces. And, despite the closure of the Sanitary Bureau in 1896, the experience of provincial sanitary organization appeared to be needed and revived. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Saratov Zemstvo developed new forms of health and social care, such as summer nurseries for children and medical and food posts for immigrant workers. According to the 1901 data, the Saratov Zemstvo was one of the leaders in financial support of anti-epidemic measures. Financing and planning of anti-epidemic work was centralized, lack of system in the fight against epidemics in the early years of Zemstvos was overcome.
Key words: local government, Zemstvo medicine, health organization, epidemics, health statistics, vaccination.