Ignatieva O. V. Pavel Tretyakov and VLadimir Stasov: dialogue on the nature of national art (.pdf)
The article deals with the problem of the development of national traditions of Russian art in the second half of the 19th century. At that time, an autonomous field of fine arts was formed in Russia. The evidences of the process were, firstly, the loss of the monopoly to art by the Academy of Arts and, secondly, the appearance of the Peredvizhniki movement and art critics. The author demonstrates that, in the process of fine arts’ autonomization, the support of artists by collectors, the national museum and art critics, who were defending the idea of national art, played a big role. The paper analyzes the correspondence between Tretyakov and Stasov and their roles in the development of public discussion on national art. The author states that the term “art” was reinterpreted in the context of national discourse because of the request from both the state and the intelligentsia in that period. Artists and collectors were trying to maneuver between those meanings that were invested in national art. For example, the artists initially followed art critics and joined the discussions on understanding both their own creativity and national art in general. However, later, the narrow art market forced them to maintain ties with patrons and the authorities. Stasov took place as an authoritative art critic, who acted as an intermediary between artists and the state, and between artists and collectors. For the power, in the person of Emperor Alexander III, the demonstration of loyalty and the support of the Peredvizhniki activities, the official visits to the openings of the exhibitions and the rivalry with Tretyakov, not only in the purchase of paintings, but also in the creation of a national museum, were associated with the appeal to the idea of a nationality.
Key words: history of Russia in the second half of the 19th century, Russian culture, history of private art collecting, art.